To re-cap, galls are formed by the interaction of animal and plant. Irritated by wasp, mite, aphid, midge, even nematode, etc., the plant is stimulated into forming a growth which is then used by the animal to protect its eggs, foster its larval stages, etc. Galls can be found on all parts of a plant, leaves, flowers, stems, bark, roots. The most obvious are the ones on the leaves, and oaks in particular seem to have a strong affinity, if that’s the word, for gall-making insects that create oddly wonderful oak “apples.” The plant is generally not harmed by this interrelationship, the benefits of which are partaken by well over 1000 (in North American) species of insects.
- Been so long since I've flown that I forgot that a pony-tail could hide something. I was nearly buzz-cut last time. 6 hours ago
amphibians Arizona bees beetles birding birds Black Rock Forest books Britain Bronx Brooklyn Brooklyn Botanic Garden Brooklyn Bridge Park Bush Terminal butterflies caterpillars Central Park cicadas Climate crabs Croton Point damselflies Dartmoor Dead Horse Bay dragonflies elm fish flowers Floyd Bennett Field Fort Tilden Four Sparrow Marsh frogs fungus galls Gastropoda Geology Gowanus Great Swamp Green-Wood honey bees horseshoe crab Hudson Iceland insects invertebrates Inwood Jamaica Bay ladybugs Maine mammals Marine Park mollusca Montreal moths mushrooms Nantucket New York Botanical Garden Odonata owls plants Plumb Beach Prospect Park reptiles shells snails spiders St. John Staten Island Sunset Park Texas Thoreau trees turtles Virgin Gorda wasps
This work by Matthew Wills is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 United States License.