To re-cap, galls are formed by the interaction of animal and plant. Irritated by wasp, mite, aphid, midge, even nematode, etc., the plant is stimulated into forming a growth which is then used by the animal to protect its eggs, foster its larval stages, etc. Galls can be found on all parts of a plant, leaves, flowers, stems, bark, roots. The most obvious are the ones on the leaves, and oaks in particular seem to have a strong affinity, if that’s the word, for gall-making insects that create oddly wonderful oak “apples.” The plant is generally not harmed by this interrelationship, the benefits of which are partaken by well over 1000 (in North American) species of insects.
- Kissinger's a frail, old man now, but there's no statue of limitations on war crimes. And he'll still be a war criminal after he's dead. 2 hours ago
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